Thailand is experiencing a steady increase in waste and wastewater generation due to a growing population, strong economic growth, urbanisation and the subsequent changes in the population’s consumption patterns. According to Thailand’s State of Pollution Report 2018, 27.8 million tons of municipal solid waste was generated, an increase of 1.64% compared to 2017. Extended urban development and changing lifestyles are said to be the main reasons for the increase. About 9.58 million tons or 34% of the waste was re-utilized, 10.88 million tons or 39% went to landfills and 7.36 million tons or 27 per cent was improperly disposed of in open dumps or by openly burning.
Moreover, the total volume of domestic wastewater generated amounts to approx. 9.7 million cubic metres per day of which 2.6. million cubic metres or 27% is currently being treated in central municipal treatment plants. At the same time, the actual treatment capacity is around 40% mainly due to low loading rates, limited piping connection and budget constraints.
At the subnational level, the local governments responsible for the management of municipal solid waste and wastewater often lack institutional capacities and financial resources to manage their waste and wastewater facilities properly.
Improperly managed municipal solid waste and domestic wastewater are a major cause of environmental degradation and health problems throughout the country. With a rate of 4% to 5% of the total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in Thailand, municipal solid waste and wastewater clearly contribute to climate change.
To improve the national framework conditions for integrated and climate-friendly municipal solid waste and wastewater management and to support the implementation and achievement of the Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) targets
As an integrated part of the Thai-German Climate Programme, the project supports the implementation of the NDCs in the municipal waste and wastewater sector. The project therefore follows the approach given below:
Climate protection mechanisms are being integrated into the national waste and wastewater management policies and plans. The project works with policy makers and planners to review existing policies, strategies and master plans.
Climate-friendly municipal solid waste and municipal wastewater management systems are being developed, in at least 4 target regions. The project will work with selected local authorities to develop and design climate-friendly municipal waste and wastewater schemes with a GHG mitigation potential and economic feasibility.
The existing national waste and wastewater management information systems contribute to measurement, reporting and verification (MRV) in the sector. The existing national data management system for waste and wastewater will be adjusted.
Public and private financing models are being developed to support climate-friendly municipal solid waste and municipal wastewater management. New financial models will be developed under the advice of financial experts.
Integrated municipal solid waste and municipal wastewater management initiatives are being exchanged on national and international platforms.
RESULTS SO FAR
National Climate Change Action Plan for Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) and Domestic Wastewater (DWW) has been endorsed by the National Climate Change Committee.
Stakeholder dialogue towards the development of a National Roadmap for Food Waste Reduction has been initiated.
Framework and specific outline for MSW baseline and low carbon scenario development at 3 pilot cities has been developed.
National database survey for MSW has been prepared and implementation service providers have been assigned
MRV system approach for MSW and DWW has been developed and capacity building measures have been identified
Climate financing opportunities for MSW and DWW have been analysed and support strategies have been proposed
The German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Nuclear Safety and Consumer Protection (BMUV)
Pollution Control Department, Department of Local Administration